Cream Tea (aka Light Tea): Tea, scones and/or crumpets, clotted or Devon cream and preserves and/or lemon curd are served. Scones are light, tender biscuits, served hot from the oven. Crumpets are griddle cakes that develop surface holes as they cook, the better to catch melting butter (imagine a cross between an English muffin and a pancake). Lemon curd is a sweet spread derived from lemons, with the consistency of pudding.
“You cannot visit Devon or Cornwall [England] without sampling the famous Cream Tea, with scones, jam, and clotted cream the rich colour of yellow garden roses.”
— Helen Simpson, The London Ritz Book of Afternoon Tea. (New York: Arbor House, 1986).
Afternoon Tea (aka Low Tea): Low tea derives its name from the low side table on which it was served, beside a comfortable armchair in the drawing room. Often presented on a three-tier tray called a “curate,” finger sandwiches, scones with preserves/lemon curd/clotted cream and small desserts are served.
“The general rule is that the earlier tea is served, the lighter the refreshments. At three, tea is usually a snack – dainty finger sandwiches, petits fours, fresh strawberries; at six, it can be a meal – or ‘high’ tea – with sausage rolls, salads and trifle.”
— Angela Hynes, The Pleasures of Afternoon Tea. (Tucson, AZ: H.P. Books, 1987).
High Tea (aka Meat Tea): Historically served in the evenings, high tea (named for the high dinner table on which it was customarily served), was a hearty meal including meat, cheese and bread savories as well as homemade cake or pie for hungry workers returning home from the factories and fields.
Though many American teahouses use “afternoon tea” and “high tea” interchangeably, full tea menus that offer additional sandwich, soup, salad, tea bread or cake more aptly fit the description of a “high tea.” Some American tea rooms offer a true high tea in the evenings, similar to a prix fixe dinner, serving a set menu with dinner entrée, salad or soup, breads, dessert and of course, tea.
Royal Tea (aka Champagne Tea): Not referring to Darjeeling tea (the “champagne” of teas), a Champagne Tea or Royal Tea offers a glass of champagne or sherry in addition to the full afternoon tea menu, and sometimes a flower, fresh strawberries or a fourth course, to give the meal an air of festive luxury.
Dim Sum: Literally meaning “point of the heart,” dim sum began when Chinese roadside teahouses would offer tea tastings, called “yum cha,” for farmers coming home from the fields. Over time the Cantonese in southern China transformed these tea tastings into family dinners. Modern-day dim sum includes tea, and a variety of small plates offered by servers who tour the dining room with carts of steamed or fried dumplings, vegetables, desserts and other specialties.
Japanese Tea Ceremony (aka Way of Tea): This ceremonial preparation and presentation of matcha (powdered green tea), is accompanied by light fare and desserts or a full-course meal that can last several hours.
“Sen Rikyu, the 16th-century tea master who perfected the Way of Tea, said he would become a disciple of the person who could carry out its seven rules without fail: make a satisfying bowl of tea; lay the charcoal so that the water boils efficiently; provide a sense of warmth in the winter and coolness in the summer; arrange the flowers as though they were in the field; be ready ahead of time; be prepared in case it should rain; act with utmost consideration toward your guests…
The Way of Tea requires creating the proper setting for enjoying that moment with a perfect bowl of tea. Everything that goes into that serving of tea, even the quality of the air and the space where it is served, becomes a part of its flavor. The perfect tea must therefore capture the ‘flavor’ of the moment — the spirit of the season, of the occasion, of the time and the place. The event called ‘chaji’ — a “full tea gathering” — is where this takes place and where the Way of Tea unfolds as an exquisite, singular moment in time shared and savored fully by the participants.”
— Theresa Cheung, Tea Bliss.
(San Francisco: Conari Press, 2007).